‘Artificial Intelligence – The Practical Legal Issues (Third Edition)’ by John Buyers


Paperback: 978-1-916698-14-7
Published: September 2023
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Artificial Intelligence remains a complex and rapidly evolving technology. Since the second edition of this book, Generative AI models such as ChatGPT have made a seismic impact on the AI industry and society as a whole. Legislative and policy initiatives move closer to finalisation, particularly the EU’s groundbreaking Artificial Intelligence Act which is likely to have a global impact on regulation of AI and machine learning systems. In a fast moving specialist area, it is essential to keep pace. If you are lost and need clear direction, ‘Artificial Intelligence – The Practical Legal Issues’ will guide you through the policy updates and implications of existing AI technologies and provide a practical and easily digestible path to the real issues you need to consider as a legal practitioner.

This book contains a grounding of what differentiates artificially intelligent systems from traditional technology and explains the differences between AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning, and what makes Generative AI (and by association, foundation models) so different. Understanding what AI systems can and cannot do is also essential to developing a clear legal awareness of the technology. From these introductory foundations, you’ll learn how the deployment of AI technology creates issues and risks that need to be considered carefully and that permeate across causation, intellectual property ownership, confidentiality and data protection, recruitment and even criminal law.

This Third Edition contains an entirely new chapter on one of the most exciting emergent AI technologies, Generative AI. AI Ethics and the new EU Artificial Intelligence Act are also explained in depth as well as commentary on the UK’s vision for AI as reflected in its 2023 AI Governance White Paper.


John Buyers is a commercial solicitor and partner at Osborne Clarke LLP, an international law firm which specialises in advising high technology clients, or businesses that are transitioning through a process of digitalisation. John manages the UK Commercial team and leads Osborne Clarke’s international Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning group. He is a frequent commentator on the topic of Artificial Intelligence and the law and speaks regularly both in the UK and internationally on the subject.

John’s practice is largely based on transactional IT and outsourcing in the Financial Services and regulated Professional Services sectors. He regularly advises users and suppliers of Artificial Intelligence based systems. Recent work has included advising a global technology business on the legal implications of automated facial recognition in Europe and providing guidance to a major social media network on the discriminatory effects of automated content takedown.


“…a must-read book for anybody advising on aspects of software code if it is part of a device or product. The author beings his wide knowledge of the topic to bear…”
– Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review


Chapter One – An Introduction to Artificially Intelligent Systems
Chapter Two – AI Ethics: A Primer
Chapter Three – Generative AI
Chapter Four – Causation and Artificial Intelligence
Chapter Five – The EU Artificial Intelligence Act
Chapter Six – Big Data and Artificial Intelligence
Chapter Seven – Automated Facial Recognition
Chapter Eight – Intellectual Property Rights in AI Systems
Chapter Nine – Automated Bias and Discrimination
Chapter Ten – AI Crime: Commission and Judgment
Chapter Eleven – Market Distorting Effects: AI and Competition Law
Chapter Twelve – Automation and Service Provision
Chapter Thirteen – Artificial Intelligence and Corporate Law
Chapter Fourteen – Political, Regulatory and Industry Responses